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◎ PTS P-E Dictionary

Visākha

Visākha,(adj.) [visākhā as adj.] having branches,forked; in ti° three-branched S.I,118=M.I,109.(Page 639)

◎ Pali Proper Names Dictionary

Visākha

Visākha:1.Visākha.Husband of Dhammadinnā.He was a rich merchant of Rājagaha and accompanied Bimbisāra on his visit to the Buddha,who was then at Rājagaha for the first time after his Enlightenment.Visākha,on that occasion,became a sotāpanna,after hearing the Buddha preach; he later became a sakadāgāmī and then an anāgāmī.After he became an anāgāmī his behaviour to his wife completely changed,and when he explained to her the reason,offering her all his wealth and freedom to do as she wished,she asked his leave to join the Order.Visākha informed Bimbisāra of her wish,and,at his request,the king ordered that the city be decked in her honour on the day of her renunciation and that she be taken to the nunnery in a golden palanquin.

After Dhammadinnā had joined the Order,she left the city and retired into the country,returning to Rājagaha after she had attained arahantship.Visākha,hearing of her return,visited her at the nunnery and asked her various questions regarding the Buddha’s teachings,all of which she answered (MA.i.514f.; ThigA.15,19).Their conversation is recorded in theCulla Vedalla Sutta (M.i.299f.; cf.DhA.iv.229f.; AA.i.197).Visākha then visited the Buddha and reported their conversation to him,winning the Buddha’s praises for Dhammadinnā.

In the time of Phussa Buddha,Visākha and Dhammadinnā had been husband and wife.(For details see PvA.20ff.; of.KhpA.202f.; DhA.i.86f.AA.i.144f.) Visākha had been the treasurer,appointed by the three sons of Jayasena,in charge of the provisions given by them for the almsgiving held in honour of Phussa Buddha and his monks.

Visākha is mentioned (SA.iii.223) as one of the seven lay disciples in the time of the Buddha who had each five hundred followers.

2.Visākha.Called Pañcāliputta.He was son of a provincial governor (mandalikarājā) of Magadha,and was called Pañcāliputta because his mother was the daughter of the Pañcāla king.(AA.ii.511 calls him the son of Pañcālibrāhmanī).He succeeded his father,and,hearing one day that the Buddha had arrived near his village,he visited him,heard him preach and joined the Order.He then accompanied the Buddha to Sāvatthi,where he became an arahant.Later,out of compassion,he visited his relations.

One day he was asked how many qualities were necessary to a man in order that he should be considered a skilful preacher of the Dhamma.Visākha’s answer is included in the Theragāthā (Thag.vs.209 10; ThagA.i.331f).

Fourteen kappas ago he was a poor householder,and one day,while searching in the forest for fruit,he saw a Pacceka Buddha and offered him a vallī fruit.He is evidently to be identified with Valliphaladāyaka of the Apadāna (Ap.i.296).

Visākha was evidently a clever and arresting preacher,and the books mention that the Buddha heard him preach and praised him.S.ii.280; A.ii.51.

3.Visākha Thera. He was a rich householder of Pātaliputta who,hearing that there were many shrines in Ceylon,made over his property to his family and left home with one single coin wrapt in the hem of his garment.He had to spend one month at the port waiting for a ship,and,during that time,made one thousand by his skill in trade.Arrived at the Mahāvihāra,he asked to be ordained,and when,at the time of his ordination,the money was discovered,he distributed it among those who were present.After five years he set out travelling,and,with the help of a devatā,found his way to Cittalapabbata vihāra,where he stayed for four months.As he was about to leave,the devatā of the jambu tree which stood at the head of his cankamana appeared before him weeping,and explained that while the Thera was there the nonhumans lived in peace,but that when he had gone they would start quarrelling and talking loudly.Several times he tried to leave but was thus prevented,until,at last,he became an arahant and died there.Vsm.i.312f; the story is referred to at AA.ii.865.

4.Visākha. One of the chief lay supporters of Mangala Buddha.Bu.v.25.

5.Visākha. One of the chief lay supporters of Phussa Buddha.Bu.xix.21.

6.Visākha.A minister of Dutthagāmani.He and Sirideva were in charge of the arrangements for the Foundation Ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa.MT.517.

7.Visākha.See also Vesākha.

◎ 《パーリ语辞典》

visākhā

visākhā:f.[Sk.viśākhā] ①枝,条枝.②毘舎佉 [月の名,4~5月] .cf.vesākha.

◎ 《巴利语汇解》

Visākhā

Visākhā:(居士名)维沙卡, (古音译:)毘舍佉

◎ 《巴汉词典》

Visākhā

Visākhā,【阴】 氐宿(二十七星宿之一),毗舍佉(佛陀的在家女信徒)。(p300)

◎ 《巴汉词典》

Visākhā

Visākhā,【阴】氐宿(二十七星宿之一),毘舍佉(佛陀的在家女信徒,布施第一)。《法句经注》(Dh.A.v.53.;CS:p.1.254~5)毘舍佉结婚前,父亲给的建言:(1)“anto-aggi bahi na nīharitabbo”ti āha,“Sakkā nu kho amhehi ubhato paṭivissakagehānaṁ aggiṁ adatvā vasitun”ti? “Evaṁ kira,ammā”ti.“Tātā,mayhaṁ pitā na etaṁ sandhāya kathesi.Idaṁ pana sandhāya kathesi–‘amma,tava sassusasurasāmikānaṁ aguṇaṁ disvā bahi tasmiṁ tasmiṁ gehe ṭhatvā mā kathesi.Evarūpo hi aggisadiso aggi nāma natthī’”ti.Ayyā,etaṁ tāva evaṁ hotu,imissā pana pitā.(不要将家里的火拿到外面(邻居):说:‘释迦女!为什么跟我们两人的邻居,不给家里的火?’‘如是,确实,母亲。’‘亲爱的!不要评论我的父亲。’‘女儿!乃至於见到公婆和丈夫的坏事,保持在家里,不要处处外传。像这样类似火,不是(真的)火。’母亲! 这样知道了。这个是父亲的(建言)。) (2)“bāhirato aggi na anto pavesetabbo”ti āha,“kiṁ Sakkā amhehi anto aggimhi nibbute bāhirato aggiṁ anāharitun”ti? “Evaṁ kira,ammā”ti.Tātā,mayhaṁ pitā na etaṁ sandhāya kathesi,idaṁ pana sandhāya kathesi–sace paṭivissakagehesu itthiyo vā purisā vā sassusasurasāmikānaṁ aguṇaṁ kathenti,tehi kathitaṁ āharitvā “asuko nāma tumhākaṁ evañca evañca aguṇaṁ kathetī”ti puna mā katheyyāsi.“Etena hi agginā sadiso aggi nāma natthī”ti.Evaṁ imasmimpi kāraṇe sā niddosāva ahosi.(不要将外面(邻居)的火拿到家里:‘释迦女!为什么不要将外面的火拿到家里?’‘如是,确实,母亲。’‘亲爱的!不要评论我的父亲,这是关於评论。’如果评论邻居--若女、若男、若公婆和丈夫的坏事,带来他们的评论,‘某某,不评论你们的这个那个坏事。’‘像这样类似火,不是(真的)火。如此,在这事情不要趟混水的。)(3)“Ye dadanti,tesaṁyeva dātabban”ti vuttaṁ.Taṁ “yācitakaṁ upakaraṇaṁ gahetvā ye paṭidenti,tesaññeva dātabban”ti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(只给那些会给者:帮忙那些有借有还的人,应该给他们。)(4)“Ye na denti,tesaṁ na dātabban”ti idampi ye yācitakaṁ gahetvā na paṭidenti,tesaṁ na dātabbanti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(不给那些会不给者:不借给那些有借无还的人,不应该给他们。)(5)“Dadantassāpi adadantassāpi dātabban”ti idaṁ pana daliddesu ñātimittesu sampattesu te paṭidātuṁ sakkontu vā mā vā,tesaṁ dātumeva vaṭṭatīti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(给那些既给又不给者:已来到的贫困者、亲戚和朋友,即使有借无还,也应该施与他们。)(6)“Sukhaṁ nisīditabban”ti idampi sassusasurasāmike disvā vuṭṭhātabbaṭṭhāne nisīdituṁ na vaṭṭatīti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(快乐地坐:看见公婆和丈夫应起迎,不应坐著。(不起迎则内心傲慢,不会快乐。))(7)“Sukhaṁ bhuñjitabban”ti idaṁ pana sassusasurasāmikehi puretaraṁ abhuñjitvā te parivisitvā sabbehi laddhāladdhaṁ ñatvā pacchā sayaṁ bhuñjituṁ vaṭṭatīti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(快乐地吃:公婆和丈夫未吃饭前,不吃,在他们用餐时侍立一旁,已知道服侍好之后,自己才吃饭。(不侍候则不会快乐。))(8)“Sukhaṁ nipajjitabban”ti idampi sassusasurasāmikehi puretaraṁ sayanaṁ āruyha na nipajjitabbaṁ,tesaṁ kattabbayuttakaṁ vattapaṭivattaṁ katvā pacchā sayaṁ nipajjituṁ yuttanti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(快乐地睡:公婆和丈夫要先上床,否则不睡,妻子应该在睡前做好自己的各种责任,才去睡觉。(不尽责则不会快乐。))(9)“Aggi paricaritabbo”ti idaṁ pana sassumpi sasurampi sāmikampi aggikkhandhaṁ viya uragarājānaṁ viya ca katvā passituṁ vaṭṭatīti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(应照顾好家火:侍候公婆和丈夫应要当作侍候像侍火、蛇王(uragarājānaṁ)一样。)(10)“Antodevatā namassitabbā”ti idampi sassuñca sasurañca sāmikañca devatā viya katvā daṭṭhuṁ vaṭṭatīti sandhāya vuttaṁ.(应礼敬家神:公婆和丈夫理应要当作神明一样。)

◎ 《巴汉佛学辞汇》

Visākhā

Visākhā:毗舍佉月

◎ Concise P-E Dictionary

visākhā

visākhā:[f.] name of a lunar mansion,and that of a female devotee of the Buddha.

◎ PTS P-E Dictionary

Visākhā

Visākhā,(f.) [vi+sākhā,Sk.viśākhā] N.of a lunar mansion (nakkhatta) or month (see vesākha),usually as visākha° (--puṇṇamā),e.g.SnA 391; VvA.165.(Page 639)

◎ Pali Proper Names Dictionary

Visākhā

Visākhā:1.Visākhā.One of the chief lay women supporters ofPiyadassī Buddha.Bu.xiv.22.

2.Visākhā. Mother of Kakusandha Buddha and wife of Aggidatta.Bu.xxiii.58; J.i.94; D.ii.7.

3.Visākhā.One of the five queens of the thirdOkkāka.DA.i.238; SNA.i.352; MT.131.

4.Visākhā Therī. She belonged to the harem of the Bodhisatta and left the world with Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī.She received a topic of meditation from the Buddha and in due course won arahantship.A verse uttered by her,admonishing her companions,is included in the Therīgāthā.Thig.vs.13; ThigA.20.

5.VisākhāThe chief among the female lay disciples of the Buddha and declared by him to be foremost among those who ministered to the Order (dāyikānam aggā) (A.i.26; she is considered the ideal lay woman - e.g.A.iv.348).Her father wasDhanañjaya,son ofMendaka,and her motherSumanā.She was born in the city ofBhaddiya in Anga.When she was seven years old,the Buddha visited Bhaddiya with a large company of monks,out of compassion for the brahmin Sela and others.Mendaka gave Visākhā five hundred companions,five hundred slaves,and five hundred chariots,that she might visit the Buddha.She stopped the chariots some distance away and approached the Buddha on foot.He preached to her and she became a sotāpanna.For the next fortnight Mendaka invited the Buddha and his monks daily to his house,where he fed them.

Later,when,at Pasenadi’s request,Bimbisāra sent Dhanañjaya to live inKosala,Visākhā accompanied her parents and lived in Sāketa.The messengers,sent byMigāra of Sāvatthi to find a suitable bride for his sonPunnavaddhana,saw Visākhā on her way to the lake to bathe on a feast day.At that moment there was a great shower.Visākhā’s companions ran for shelter,but Visākhā herself,walking at her usual pace,came to the place where the messengers,already greatly impressed,were awaiting her.When they asked her why she did not run to seek shelter and so preserve her clothes,she answered that she had plenty of clothes in the house,but that if she ran she might damage a limb which would be a great loss.”Unmarried girls,” she said,”are like goods awaiting sale,they must not be disfigured.” The messengers offered her a bouquet of flowers (mālāgulam),which she accepted as a proposal of marriage,and then went on to her father’s house.The messengers followed and laid Punnavaddhana’s suit before Dhanañjaya.The proposal was accepted and confirmed by an exchange of letters.

When Pasenadi heard of it,he offered to accompany Punnavaddhana to Sāketa,as a mark of signal favour.Dhanañjaya welcomed the king and his retinue,Migāra,Punnavaddhana and their followers,with all honour,attending personally to all the details of hospitality.He persuaded the king to stay with him during the rains,providing all that was necessary.According to the DhA.account (loc.cit.) Visākhā superintended all the arrangements.

Five hundred goldsmiths were engaged to make theMahālatāpasādhana (ornament),for the bride; three months passed,but it was still unfinished.The supply of firewood ran out,and orders were given that the wood of dilapidated houses should be used.This wood lasted for a fortnight,and then the storehouses containing cloths were opened,the cloths soaked in oil and used for cooking the food.The ornament was finished in four months.In the time of Kassapa Buddha she gave bowls and robes to twenty thousand monks,also thread and needles and sewing materials; as a result of this,she received her parure in this life (DhA.i.395).

Dhanañjaya gave his daughter,as dowry,five hundred carts full of money,five hundred with vessels of gold,five hundred each of silver,copper,various silks,ghee,rice husked and winnowed; also ploughs,ploughshares,and other farm implements,five hundred carts with three slave-women in each,everything being provided for them.The cattle given by him filled an enclosure three quarters of a league in length and eight rods across,standing shoulder to shoulder,and in addition to these,sixty thousand bulls and sixty thousand milk cows escaped from their stalls and joined the herd already gifted to her.In her birth as Sanghadāsi,she gave the five products of the cow to twenty thousand monks,begging them to eat; hence the escaping of the cattle for her benefit (DhA.i.397).Visākhā’s relations continued to send her costly gifts even after her marriage.The Udāna (ii.9) contains a story of a dispute she had with the customs officers regarding the duty they levied on one of her presents.She visited Pasenadi several times,trying to get the matter settled; but he had no time to give to the matter,and,in the end,she sought consolation from the Buddha.

When the time came for Visākhā to leave,Dhanañjaya gave her ten admonitions,which Migāra overheard from the next room.These admonitions were:

Not to give fire from the house outside; not to take into the house fire from without; to give only to those who give in return:not to give to those who do not give in return; to give to him that gives and to him that gives not; to sit,eat and sleep happily; to tend the fire and to honour household deities.These riddles were later explained by Visākhā to her father in law (DhA.i.403f.).

On the following day Dhanañjaya appointed eight householders to be sponsors to his daughter and to enquire into any charges which might be brought against her.When she left,Dhanañjaya allowed any inhabitants of his fourteen tributary villages to accompany her if they so wished.As a result the villages were left empty; but Migāra,fearing that he should have to feed them,drove most of them back.Visākhā entered Sāvatthi standing in her chariot,so that all might see her glory.The citizens showered gifts on her,but these she distributed among the people.

Migāra was a follower of the Niganthas,and,soon after Visākhā’s arrival in his house,he sent for them and told her to minister to them.But Visākhā,repulsed by their nudity,refused to pay them homage.The Niganthas urged that she should be sent away,but Migāra bided his time.One day,as Migāra was eating,while Visākhā stood fanning him,a monk was seen standing outside his house.Visākhā stood aside,that Migāra might see him,but as Migāra continued to eat without noticing the monk,she said to the latter,”Pass on,Sir,my father in law eats stale fare.” Migāra was angry and threatened to send her away,but,at her request,the matter was referred to her sponsors.They enquired into the several charges brought against her and adjudged her not guilty.Visākhā then gave orders that preparations should be made for her return to her parents.But Migāra begged her forgiveness which she granted,on condition that he would invite to the house the Buddha and his monks.This he did,but,owing to the influence of the Niganthas,he left Visākhā to entertain them,and only consented to hear the Buddha’s sermon at the end of the meal from behind a curtain.At the conclusion of this sermon,however,he became a sotāpanna.His gratitude towards Visākhā was boundless; henceforth she was to be considered as his mother and to receive all the honour due to a mother; from this time onwards she was called Migāramātā.In DhA.i.406 we are told that in order to confirm this declaration,Migāra sucked the breast of Visākhā.This account adds that she had also a son named Migāra; thus there was a double reason for the name.AA.i.313 says that Migāra was her eldest son.

Migāra got made for her everyday use an ornament called ghanamatthaka,at a cost of one hundred thousand.(Some time after,Visākhā sold theMahālatāpasādhana and built theMigāramātupāsada.) On the day of the presentation of this ornament,Migāra held for her a special festival in her honour,and she was made to bathe in sixteen pots of perfumed water.This account of Visākhā is summarized from DhA.i.384ff.; AA.i.219ff.contains a similar account but with far less detail.The DhA.account contains numerous other particulars,some of which are given below.

Visākhā had ten sons and ten daughters,each of whom had a similar number of children,and so on down to the fourth generation.Before her death,at the age of one hundred and twenty,she had eighty four thousand and twenty direct lineal descendants,all living.(But see Ud.viii.8,which speaks of the death of a grand daughter and of Visākhā’s great grief; this evidently refers toDattā).She herself kept,all her life,the appearance of a girl of sixteen.She had the strength of five elephants,and it is said that once she took the trunk of an elephant,which was sent to test her,between her two fingers and forced him back on his haunches (DhA.i.409).Visākhā owned such a great reputation for bringing good fortune that the people of Sāvatthi always invited her to their houses on festivals and holidays (Ibid.).

Visākhā fed five hundred monks daily at her house.(Thus,e.g.J.iv.144; two thousand,according to DhA.i.128; later she appointed her grand daughter,probably Dattā,to officiate for her.) In the afternoon she visited the Buddha,and,after listening to his sermon,would go round the monastery inquiring into the needs of the monks and nuns (*1).In these rounds she was sometimes accompanied by Suppiyā (*2).Visākhā begged for,and was granted,eight boons by the Buddha:that as long as she lived she be allowed to give robes to the members of the Order for the rainy season; food for monks coming into Sāvatthi (*3); food for those going out; food for the sick; food for those who wait on the sick; medicine for the sick; a constant supply of rice gruel for any needing it; and bathing robes for the nuns (*4).

With the construction of the Mīgāramātupāsāda in the Pubbārāma Visākhā’s ambitions were fulfilled,and it is said (DhA.i.416f) that when the monastery was completed and the festival of opening in progress,as the evening drew on she walked round the monastery accompanied by her children,her grandchildren and her great grandchildren,and in five stanzas sang her joy,saying,”Now is entirely fulfilled the prayer which I prayed in times of yore.” (The wishes mentioned in these stanzas as having been fulfilled differ from the eight boons mentioned above).The monks heard her sing and told the Buddha; he related to them how,in the time of Padumuttara Buddha,Visākhā had been the friend of the principal women benefactors of that Buddha.In the time of Kassapa Buddha she was Sanghadāsī,youngest of the seven daughters of Kiki,and for long after her marriage she gave alms and performed other good works with her sisters.(AA.i.219).

(*1) Because she wished the Sangha well she was appointed on the committee set up to enquire into the charge of misbehaviour brought against the mother of Kumārakassapa; Visākhā’s experience as the mother of several children stood her in good stead.

(*2) For an incident connected with one of these visits,see Suppiyā.DhA.(i.100f.) says that once five hundred young men of good family entrusted the care of their wives to Visākhā. On one occasion,when accompanying her to the monastery,they became drunk and committed improprieties in the presence of the Buddha.The Buddha frightened them by emitting a dark blue ray of light,thus restoring them to their senses.This was the occasion of the preaching of the Kumbha Jātaka; see also J.v.11f.

(*3) Probably on account of this boon the monks who had been to see Khadiravaniya Revata visited Visākhā immediately after their return to Sāvatthi; but see the Pītha Jātaka.

(*4) This list of boons and Visākhā’s reasons for begging them are given at Vin.i.290ff.According to the Suruci Jātaka, she obtained the boons owing to her virtue in the past as well - e.g. in her birth as Sumedhā (J.iv.315ff.); see also Vin.i.296,where the Buddha accepts a face towel as a special gift from Visākhā but would not accept an earthenware foot scrubber (Vin.ii.129f.).

According to the Vihāravimānavatthu (Vv.iv.6; VvA.189,191),Visākhā was born,after death,among the Nimmānaratidevā as the consort of the deva king Sunimmita.

Buddhaghosa says (DA.iii.740) that Visākhā,like Sakka and Anāthapindika,will enjoy one hundred and thirty one kappas of happiness in the Brahma-worlds before she finally passes away into Nibbāna.

Among Visākhā’s relations are also mentioned,in addition to her two sonsMigajāla andMigāra,a sisterSujātā,who became Anāthapindika’s daughter in law (A.iv.91; AA.ii.724; J.ii.347); a grandson,Salha; a granddaughter,Dattā,who died (DhA.iii.278):and Uggaha,called Mendakanattā.Mention is also made of a grandson of hers on whose behalf she interceded with the Buddha when the monks refused to ordain him during the rainy season.(Vin.i.153)

The books contain numerous Suttas preached by the Buddha to Visākhā during her frequent visits to him,chief among such Suttas being the famous discourse on the keeping of the uposatha,(A.i.205ff.; cf.iv.255; DhA.iii.58f) the discourse of the eight qualities which win for women power in this world and power and happiness in the next,(A.iv.269) and eight qualities which win for a woman birth among the Manāpakāyika devas.(A.iv.267)

6.VisākhāOne of the women who will renounce the world at the same time as the future Buddha Metteyya.She will be accompanied by eighty four thousand other women.Anāgat.vs.63.

◎ Pali-Dictonary from VRI

visākhā

visākhā:Name of a nakkhatta; name of a celebrated female saint,a contemporary and disciple of Buddha

◎ Pali Viet Dictionary

VISĀKHĀ

VISĀKHĀ:[f] tên một tháng AL,và tên một tín nữ của đức Phật là bà Visàkhà

◎ U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary

visākhā

visākhā:ဝိ-သာခါ (ဣ)
ဝိသာခါနကၡတ္။

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