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◎ Buddhist Dictionary

paramī

paramī,= pāramitā: 'perfection'.Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood:(1) perfection in giving (or liberality; dāna-pāramī),(2) morality (sīla-pāramī),(3) renunciation (nekkhamma-pāramī),(4) wisdom (paññā-pāramī),(5) energy (viriya-pāramī),(6) patience (or forbearance; khanti-pāramī),(7) truthfulness (sacca-pāramī),(8) resolution (adhiṭṭhāna-pāramī),(9) loving-kindness (mettā-pāramī) (10) equanimity (upekkhā-pāramī).

These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences,and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories (Jātaka),of which,however,only the verses are regarded as canonical.Apart from the latter,the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal,the Buddhavaṃsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariya-piṭaka.A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakiṇṇakakathā) of the Com.to Cariya-piṭaka (untranslated).

In Vis.M.IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness,compassion,altruistic joy,equanimity; s.brahma-vihāra),one may reach these 10 perfections,namely:

"As the Great Beings (mahā-satta; a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.),i.e.'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddhahood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings,not tolerating the suffering of beings,wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings,and being impartial and just to all beings,therefore (1) they give alms (dāna,q.v.) to all beings so that they may be happy,without Investigating whether they are worthy or not.(2) By avoiding to do them any harm,they observe morality (sīla q.v.).(3) In order to bring morality to perfection,they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma).(4) In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings,they purify their wisdom (paññā).(5) For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy (viriya).(6) Though having become heroes through utmost energy,they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti ) toward s the manifold failings of beings .(7) Once they have promised to give or do something,they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca).(8) With unshakable resolution (adhiṭṭhāna) they work for the weal and welfare of beings.(9) With unshakable kindness (mettā) they are helpful to all.(10) By reason of their equanimity (upekkhā) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M.IX.24).

In the Mahāyana scriptures,where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent place,a partly differing list of six is given:liberality,morality,patience,energy,meditation.and wisdom.

Literature:Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 10 pāramī),by I.B.Horner (London 1957,Luzac & Co.); Buddhavaṃsa & Cariya-piṭaka.tr.by I.B.Horner (Minor Anthologies III,Sacred Books of the Buddhists.PTS).- Nārada Thera,The Buddha & His Teachings,Ch.41; pāramī (BPS) - The treatise on the perfections from the Com.to Cariya-piṭaka has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta,with Com.).tr.by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS) .

◎ 《巴利语字汇》

pārami

pārami: 波罗蜜

◎ 《巴汉佛学辞汇》

Pārami

Pārami:波罗密;完美的;至高成就的

◎ 《パーリ语辞典》

pāramī

pāramī:f.[<parama] pl.pāramiyo.最高なるもの,波羅蜜.-patta 波羅蜜に達せる.-saṅgha 波羅蜜僧伽.

◎ 《巴利语汇解》

pāramī

pāramī:巴拉密, (古音译:)波罗蜜多,播罗弭多

◎ Buddhist Dictionary

Pāramī

Pāramī:(and pāramitā) Only the Com.deals with this subject,apart from the 3 apocryphal works,Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyapiṭaka,and the Jātaka.

◎ Concise P-E Dictionary

pāramī

pāramī:[f.] completeness; perfection.

◎ PTS P-E Dictionary

Pāramī

Pāramī,(f.) [abstr.fr.parama,cp.BSk.mantrāṇāṁ pāramiṁ gata Divy 637] completeness,perfection,highest state Sn.1018,1020; Pug.70; DhA.I,5; VvA.2 (sāvakañāṇa°); PvA.139; Sdhp.328.In later literature there is mentioned a group of 10 perfections (dasa pāramiyo) as the perfect exercise of the 10 principal virtues by a Bodhisatta,viz.dāna°,sīla°,nekkhamma°,paññā°,viriya°,khanti°,sacca°,adhiṭṭhāna°,mettā°,upekhā° J.I,73; DhA.I,84.

--ppatta (pārami°) having attained perfection M.III,28; Nd2 435; Miln.21 22; cp.Miln.trsl.I.34.(Page 454)

◎ Pali-Dictonary from VRI

pāramī

pāramī:Completeness,perfection,highest state

◎ U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary

pāramī

pāramī:ပါရမီ (ဣ) (ပရမ+ဏီ)
အထြတ္အျမတ္။ ျမတ္ေသာသူ၏အျဖစ္(ပရမာနံ ဘာေဝါ)။ အလွဴေပးျခင္းစေသာ ႀကိယာ(ဒါနာဒိႀကိယာ)။

与 parami 相似的巴利词:

abhiññāpāramī

abhiññāpāramī

abhiññāpāramippatta

abhiññāpāramippatta

abhiññāvosānapāramippatta

abhiññāvosānapāramippatta

adhiṭṭhānapāramī

adhiṭṭhānapāramī

adhiṭṭhānapāramitā

adhiṭṭhānapāramitā

apūritapāramī

apūritapāramī

buddhabalapāramī

buddhabalapāramī

Cyānapāramī

Cyānapāramī

Dānaparamatthapāramī

Dānaparamatthapāramī

Dānapāramī

Dānapāramī

Dānapāramitā

Dānapāramitā

Dānapāramiupāya

Dānapāramiupāya

Dānaupapāramī

Dānaupapāramī

Dasa-Pāramī

Dasaparamatthapāramī

Dasapāramī

Dasapāramī

Dasapāramī

Dasapāramipūrī

Dasapāramipūrī

Dasaupapāramī

Dhammabhaṇḍāgārikabhāvapāramīpūraṇattha

Dhammabhaṇḍāgārikabhāvapāramīpūraṇattha

Guṇapāramī

Guṇapāramī

Guṇapāramippatta

Guṇapāramippatta

Jinapāramī

Jinapāramī

Khantipāramī

Khantipāramī

Khantipāramitā

Khantipāramitānubhāva

Khantipāramitānubhāva

Mahābodhinidhānapāramī

Mahābodhinidhānapāramī

Mahānikkhamapāramī

Mahānikkhamapāramī

Mettāpāramī

Mettāpāramī

Ñāṇapāramippatta

Ñāṇapāramippatta

Nekkhammapāramī

Nekkhammapāramī

Nekkhammapāramitā

Nekkhammapāramitā

Nekkhammavīriyapāramitānubhāva

Nekkhammavīriyapāramitānubhāva

Paccekabodhipāramī

Paccekabodhipāramī

Paññāpāramī

Paññāpāramī

Paññāpāramimukha

Paññāpāramimukha

Paññāpāramippatta

Paññāpāramippatta

Paññāpāramisaṅgaha

Paññāpāramisaṅgaha

Paramī

Pārami

Pārami

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramī

Pāramīmahāsataka

Pāramippatta

Pāramisambharaṇa

Pāramisañcaya

Paramissariya

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pāramitā

Pattasāvakapāramīñāṇa

Pattasāvakapāramīñāṇa

Pūritapāramī

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